Layer 2 solutions are innovative protocols designed to address these challenges by scaling blockchain networks more efficiently.

Why You Should Stop Ignoring Layer 2 Solutions: A Comprehensive Guide

Adrià García
September 20, 2023

In the ever-evolving landscape of blockchain technology, challenges such as scalability, transaction costs, and interoperability become increasingly evident as networks grow. These limitations hinder mass adoption and practical utility. Layer 2 solutions are innovative protocols designed to address these challenges by scaling blockchain networks more efficiently. This article delves into the intricacies of Layer 2 solutions, exploring their algorithms, economic impact, and future potential. Whether you're a blockchain enthusiast or a seasoned developer, understanding Layer 2 solutions is crucial for anyone looking to grasp the future of blockchain technology.

To fully appreciate the significance of Layer 2 solutions, it's essential to first understand the different layers that make up a blockchain network. Let's start by breaking down these foundational layers.

Different Types of Layers: A Technical Breakdown

  • Layer 0: the foundational layer that consists of the physical infrastructure supporting the blockchain network—servers, internet connections, and other hardware. Think of Internet Service Providers offering the bandwidth for nodes to connect, or data centers hosting the physical servers where blockchain nodes run.
  • Layer 1: Moving up the stack, Layer 1 serves as the main blockchain layer. This is where transactions are verified and added to the blockchain, and it's also the home of the native cryptocurrency and smart contracts. However, this layer isn't without its limitations, especially when it comes to scalability and transaction speed. For example, Bitcoin's mainnet can handle around 7 transactions per second (TPS), and Ethereum's mainnet is slightly better at approximately 30 TPS.

But it's not all limitations at this layer; there are also innovations. Take Solana, for instance, a Layer 1 blockchain that offers a staggering 65,000 TPS, showcasing that advancements are indeed happening at the Layer 1 level.

  • Layer 2: Building upon Layer 1, Layer 2 solutions aim to improve scalability and transaction speed. They handle transactions off the main chain and later commit them back to Layer 1. The Lightning Network for Bitcoin enables faster transactions, while solutions like Optimism and Arbitrum for Ethereum allow for more efficient smart contract execution.

Now that we've established the foundational layers of a blockchain network, it's time to delve deeper into the mechanics and significance of Layer 2 solutions.

What are Layer 2s?

Layer 2 solutions are secondary protocols built atop a primary or main blockchain (Layer 1). They are designed to solve the limitations of Layer 1 blockchains by offloading some of the transactional load away from the main chain. This enables faster and more cost-effective transactions while still maintaining a level of security provided by the main chain.

Now, let's explore the key technologies that make Layer 2 solutions possible, along with some of their most famous examples:

  • zk-Rollups: These use zero-knowledge proofs to validate transactions off-chain. Well-known examples include Loopring, which focuses on decentralized exchanges, and zkSync, which aims to scale Ethereum transactions.
  • Optimistic Rollups: These solutions operate on the principle that transactions are valid unless proven otherwise. Leading examples are Optimism and Arbitrum, both designed to scale Ethereum's throughput and reduce fees.
  • State Channels: These allow for transactions between parties to occur off-chain. The Lightning Network for Bitcoin and the Raiden Network for Ethereum are popular examples that enable instant transactions.

Why Are Layer 2s Important?

Layer 2 solutions are more than just a technical upgrade; they are a pivotal advancement that addresses both economic and security concerns in blockchain networks.

  • Economic Analysis: Layer 2 solutions significantly reduce transaction costs and increase throughput. For instance, the Lightning Network can process Bitcoin transactions more than 14,000x faster than the main Bitcoin blockchain.
  • Security and Decentralization: One of the key advantages of Layer 2 solutions is that they maintain the security and decentralization features of the main blockchain. For example, zk-Rollups inherit the security of the Ethereum mainnet, ensuring that transactions are not only fast but also secure. This balance between efficiency and security makes Layer 2 solutions a compelling choice for scaling blockchain networks.

Layer 2 characteristics

When it comes to Layer 2 solutions, one size doesn't fit all. Different solutions offer varying degrees of security, scalability, and ease of implementation. Let's compare them based on these criteria.

  • Security: Most Layer 2 solutions, such as zk-Rollups and Optimistic Rollups, derive their security from the underlying Layer 1 blockchain. This ensures that while transactions may be faster and cheaper, they are also secure.
  • Scalability: Some solutions excel in handling a high volume of transactions. For example, zk-Rollups can process thousands of transactions per second, significantly improving the throughput of the main chain.
  • Ease of Implementation: Not all Layer 2 solutions are created equal when it comes to implementation. State channels, for instance, are generally easier to implement than zk-Rollups, making them a popular choice for certain use-cases.

Challenges and Limitations

While Layer 2 solutions offer promising advancements in blockchain technology, they are not without their challenges and limitations. These range from technical issues to adoption hurdles and regulatory concerns.

Technical Challenges

  • Data Availability: One of the key technical challenges is ensuring that off-chain data is available when needed for verification or dispute resolution.
  • Cross-Chain Compatibility: Not all Layer 2 solutions are compatible with every Layer 1 blockchain, which can limit their applicability.

Adoption Challenges

  • User Awareness: Despite their benefits, Layer 2 solutions are still not as widely known or understood, affecting their rate of adoption.
  • Complexity: For the average user, the complexity of setting up and using Layer 2 solutions can be a barrier to entry.

Regulatory Hurdles

  • Legal Uncertainty: The evolving landscape of blockchain regulation can create uncertainties for Layer 2 solutions, especially those that interact with financial markets.
  • Compliance: Ensuring that Layer 2 solutions comply with local and international laws can be a complex and resource-intensive task.

Future of Layer 2

The future of Layer 2 solutions is not set in stone but is shaping up to be a critical component in the evolution of blockchain technology. From ongoing research to emerging technologies and market trends, let's explore what the future may hold.

  • Ongoing Research: Ongoing Research: In the Ethereum network, research is continually being conducted to enhance both the scalability and security of Layer 2 solutions. For example, future proposals such as Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP) 4844 are in the pipeline to further reduce transaction fees and accelerate processing speeds. These ongoing efforts aim to make Layer 2 solutions even more efficient and user-friendly.
  • Emerging Technologies: New Layer 2 technologies are on the horizon, such as zk-Porter and Validium, which aim to combine the best features of zk-Rollups and Optimistic Rollups. These could offer even greater scalability and lower costs.
  • Market Trends: As blockchain adoption grows, the demand for scalable solutions is likely to increase. Layer 2 solutions are poised to meet this demand, especially as enterprise adoption of blockchain technology accelerates.

How t3rn is working to solve this issue

With the challenges and limitations of layer 2 solutions in mind - such as data availability, cross chain compatibility, user awareness, and compliance, t3rn is trying to solve all of them while still having security and user experience in mind.

t3rn is offering a new approach to the problem of blockchain interoperability and the ultimate goal is to enable trust-free collaborations between blockchains.

While smart contracts are protocols on a decentralized network that executes according to the terms of the agreement, t3rn’s smart contracts are detached from their data and hosted separately in order to facilitate blockchain agnostic execution, and having fail-safe executions.

This is achieved by breaking down execution into individual steps (Execute, Revert, and Commit), which are all uploaded and hosted on t3rn’s unique Circuit solution.

One of the biggest current challenges is making cross chain activities easy for the users and therefore optimizing mass adoption. With t3rn, developers can build Decentralized Applications (dApps) that enable blockchain interoperability and makes it easy for the users to make cross chain transactions of different sorts.


Layer 2 solutions stand at the forefront of blockchain innovation, addressing the pressing challenges of scalability, security, and efficiency. As we've explored, these solutions are not just technical upgrades but pivotal advancements that have both economic and security implications. With ongoing research, emerging technologies, and growing market demand, Layer 2 solutions are set to play an increasingly important role in making blockchain technology more practical and accessible for everyday use. Whether you're new to the topic or looking to deepen your understanding, now is the perfect time to delve into the world of Layer 2 solutions.

About t3rn

‍t3rn is a multichain protocol that brings fail-safe, interoperable execution and smart contract composability to the Polkadot ecosystem and beyond. t3rn’s ultimate goal is to enable trust-free collaboration between blockchains and to create an ecosystem in which anyone can utilize and deploy an interoperable smart contract, in an ecosystem where developers are fairly rewarded for their contributions.

Turn multichain with t3rn.

Join Multichain Matters

Gain a competitive edge on interoperability and stay up to date with the development of t3rn. Get insights from Maciej Baj (Founder & CTO), alongside 15,000 subscribers - no spam, only value.


Thank you. We'll be in touch.
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form.